Friday, July 17, 2020
Should You Drop Your Bank for a Credit Union Should You Drop Your Bank for a Credit Union? Should You Drop Your Bank for a Credit Union?While qualifying for a credit union might be a little more difficult, these non-profits have several advantages over traditional banks, especially for folks with bad credit.There are a lot of reasons to be skeptical of banks. Each day seems to bring a new banking scandal, whether itâs Deutsche Bank or Wells Fargo or Wells Fargo or even Wells Fargo. Itâs perfectly reasonable to be looking for other options. But what kind of alternative to a traditional bank can provide you with checking and savings accounts, credit cards, personal loans, and other financial services?Consider the credit union!So what exactly is a credit union?âA credit union is a not for profit cooperative financial institution owned by members, rather than stakeholders as in a traditional bank,â explained ShaâKreshia Lewis, CEO of Humble Hustle Finance. âMembers meaning their local community. Members within the community elect a volunteer board of directors.âL ewis also explained how you can join:âQualifying membership in a credit union is based upon 5 factors: to volunteer, live, work, worship, or attend a school within the community. Upon approved qualification, you will pay a one-time membership fee and a deposit usually of up to $25.âProfits cycle back to the community in a credit union. They, in turn, offer education programs, scholarships, better rates on loans, and even higher interest rates on savings accounts.âCredit unions have great bad credit banking options.Banks are pretty restrictive if your credit isnât in a great place. Can credit unions offer better options if you have less than great credit? The answer seems to be: quite possibly!âYou can âjoinâ a credit union if your credit is bad or less than desirable,â accredited financial counselor and author of The 7 Fruits of Budgeting Roslyn Lash advised.âSecuring a loan will be difficult, however. Credit unions typically use the same standards as traditiona l banks to qualify applicants for loan products. The benefit of joining a credit union is that they offer a variety of products and the rates are usually much lower than traditional lenders.âLewis also offered her opinion on what can make credit unions an appealing choice over banks: âJust like a traditional bank is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, a credit union is insured by the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund of up to $250,000. Members can access their money through a number of ATMs which include low fees.$mart Choice checking accounts are also a benefit that credit unions offer. These accounts are based upon a Chex Systems record and come with a small monthly service fee. If you have a record of $800 or less and you live, work, worship, volunteer, or attend a school within your local community then you would qualify.After 12 months of no NSF fees (non-sufficient funds), no negative balance, no delinquent loans, not being in the process of fili ng bankruptcy, or not be subject to any legal or administrative order or levy then you can request to be moved to a regular checking account.âMany credit unions offer alternatives to payday loans.Predatory no credit check loans like payday loans, title loans, and cash advances can wreak havoc with a persons finances. With much higher rates than your standard bad credit loan, these loans can trap borrowers in a never-ending cycle of debt. And while a bad credit installment loan can make for a great alternative to a payday lending, many credit unions offer something even better.Christina Disbrow is in charge of digital marketing and community outreach at Coral Community Federal Credit Union and hereâs her recommendation:âJoining a credit union can be a great choice for anyone regardless of their credit score. For people with poor credit it can be especially beneficial, because they are willing to take chances to give loans to people with poor credit. Like any lender, interest r ates will be lower for those with good credit, but the rates are much, much lower than if a consumer used a cash advance store or financed a car through a dealer.Our credit union offers yearly $800 No Credit Check Loans and Skip-A-Loan-Payments. Our members qualify as long as they have been at their job for a year, their loans are in good standing and they have direct deposit set up.A community credit union might be your best bet to qualify.âCredit unions are a great choice over traditional banks for anyone regardless of their credit score because they are not-for-profit financial institutions, says Disbrow. That means our profits are returned to our members instead of our stockholders. This means we are able to offer lower APR on loans and higher rates of return on our interest-bearing accounts.Many credit unions have become Community Credit Unions, meaning that anyone can join as long as they (or a family member) live, work, go to school, or worship within the boundaries set for th by the financial institution and offer Co-Op services, meaning our members can deposit and withdraw funds from other credit unions.This means credit union members have access to over 5,000 locations throughout the country. Credit unions are regulated by the National Credit Union Association (NCUA), which is essentially our version of the FDIC, meaning your money is safe with us and we offer the same technology as banks such as online and mobile banking but without the fees.âSo is it time to give up your bank?Maybe, but you might not even have to.âYou donât have to leave your current bank to have a credit union,â Lewis told us. If you plan to buy a home or a new car in the near future then a credit union is the right choice for you. Before deciding, be sure to compare rates, fees, and proximity of a credit union near you.âThere you have it. Should you check out your local credit union? Might as well see what they offer!To learn more about alternatives to traditional bank ing, check out these related posts and articles from OppLoans:How to Survive in a Banking DesertIs It Time to Break Up With Your Bank?Banking Basics: 5 Types of Bank AccountsAre you a credit union member? We want to hear from you! You can email us or you can find us on Facebook and Twitter.ContributorsChristina Disbrow manages the business development and social media marketing at Coral Community Federal Credit Union in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. She enjoys her role in expanding Coral Community FCUâs membership and educating consumers on the benefits credit unions offer to the community. A nonprofit management expert, Christina is the founder of All Write, All Write, All Write a boutique development firm specializing in advocacy, communications, and fundraising. She helps nonprofits save the world by helping spread their message and raise money for their mission.Roslyn Lash (@RosLash) is an Accredited Financial Counselor and the founder of Youth Smart Financial Education Se rvices. She specializes in youth financial education, adult coaching and works virtually with adults helping them navigate through their personal finances i.e. budgeting, debt, and credit repair. Her advice has been featured in national publications such as USA Today, TIME, Huffington Post, NASDAQ, Los Angeles Times, and a host of other media outlets.ShaKreshia Lewis is an AP Clerk in the oil and gas industry. After 6+ years experience in the financial field she has set out on her own to passionately help others. She is the founder and CEO of Humble Hustle Finance, a financial platform educating emerging adults on the importance of money management.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Ryan Cho 8/21/16 AP European History 1-2 Chapter 12.1 Assignment Responses to Chapter 12.1 Assignment Questions Chapter 12 Assignment #1: 12.1-12.2 Terms: Renaissance, universal person, secularism, Hanseatic League, House of Medici, Castiglione. Questions (6): 1) What are some similarities and differences between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages that are mentioned in this section of the text? One major similarity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is the lack of Classical Culture, characterized by darkness that caused the Middle Ages. Although the Renaissance was known as a Ã¢â¬Å"rebirthÃ¢â¬ , later historians explained that the rebirth of Greco-Roman society in Italy had no Classical culture in it, which is why both the Renaissance and the Middle Ages are known as the dark age. Despite the fact that scholars do not believe that the Renaissance represented an abrupt or affecting break within the Middle Ages, there was still much stability in economic, political, and civil life. Italy, in both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, was mostly an urban society, as an outcome of its commercial supremacy and the enlargement of its political system. Both time periods preserved ancient Latin culture, with the Renaissance re-discovering the ancient Latin principles that were neglected at the end of the Middle Ages. 2) What harmed Italian trade and what factors allowed Italy to recover economically? Grave economic reversals and social upheavals of the fourteenth century greatlyShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Renaissance as a Distinct Period of Time650 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Middle Ages was a time in history where everyone was faithful to religion as well as others. Also, in the Middle Ages, people were encouraged to always try their best; they were encouraged to strive for the highest achievement possible and to never give up. The Renaissance, however, was more focused on becoming matured and finding a way to be successful at everything one does. During this era, people strived to become all-sided men, also known as; renaissance men. This means they are not onlyRead MoreThe Causes Of The Protestant Reformation1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProtestants fought for was important because they actually saw the flaw in the system. These practices that they pointed out seemingly contradict the strong points in the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. So it was only reasonable that the skeptics question the integrity of Catholicism in these aspects. Although the main doctrines of Roman Catholicism do not raise criticisms as much, other aspects were enough to create a movement for reformation. Most of these practices were alreadyRead MoreMiddle Ages vs. the Renaissance Essay736 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThere are many contrasts in the beliefs and values of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages was a time of great suffering, including famine and widespread disease. The Renaissance, however, was a revival of art, learning, and literature. Their views of the purpose of life in the present world and mans place in the world was, perhaps, the greatest contrast. However, their views on politics, religion, and education were very different as well. The purpose of life and mans place inRead MoreThe Middle Ages And The Renaissance1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Middle Ages is thought to be a time period of obliviousness by many historians, where diminutive or no developments took place. The church was the focus of attention, and rather than a logical outlook of the world, beliefs were concentrated around fallacies; on the other hand, the resurgence of education and innovations that followed the Middle Ages and was branded as the Renaissance. There have been disagreements as to whether the Renaissance is actually a isolated time period, or instead, justRead More Comparing Beliefs and Vaules of the Renaissance and Middle Ages731 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesComparing Beliefs and Vaules of the Renaissance and Middle Ages There are many contrasts in the beliefs and values of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages was a time of great suffering, including famine and widespread disease. The Renaissance, however, was a revival of art, learning, and literature. Their views of the purpose of life in the present world and mans place in the world was, perhaps, the greatest contrast. However, their views on politics, religion, and education wereRead MoreThe Renaissance And Its Impact On The European Renaissance1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWith the dark ages coming to end and the economy of Europe slowly beginning to rise again, a giant scale cultural revolution like never before was slowly beginning to sweep over Europe. Becoming what we now know as the European Renaissance, every aspect of European life changed because of this revolution. The Renaissance began a renewed interest in the people to seek knowledge and question what the world around them meant. The Renaissance wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just about learning however, it included exploringRead MoreHistorical And Philosophical Movement Of The Renaissance1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe renaissance became a historical movement that marked the beginning of individualism and modernity through the unification of philosophers, artists, writers, and poets. Although it has no fixed beginning, most theories placed the beginning era in the early 14th century. The renaissance profoundly affected European Intellectual life through the introduction of different perspectives, ideas, innovations, literature, art, science, religion among many other aspects that continue to shape modern philosophyRead MoreThe Renaissance : A Rebirth Of The Ideas Of Ancient Greece923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Renaissance was a rebirth of the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome that began in the City States of Italy during the 14th century. The cultural resurgence began a new style of living in Europe after the horrors of the black death, and is seen as the beginning o f the culture of the modern world. As Wassace K. Ferguson put in his book The Renaissance, the Italian artists grew tired of the darkness of Medieval Times and began to turn to the brighter times found in the classical ages (Doc 7). TheRead MoreA Comparison of The Middle Ages vs. The Renaissance Essay1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Middle Ages and Renaissance where worlds apart in every aspect of life. In areas of art, tools such as perspective, realism, and individualism showed the great leap in creativity during the Renaissance. Likewise, the worldly individual, or the Ã¢â¬Å"Renaissance ManÃ¢â¬ , was an improvement over the ignorant, spiritual man of the Middle Ages. Also, the revival of classical learning and education that occurred in the Renaissance was the exact opposite of the suppression of learning during the Middle AgesRead MoreHow The Middle Ages Influenced the Renaissance.1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe High Middle Ages (1001-1300) In the Middle Ages, art was centered around the Church. The purpose of art was to glorify the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Altshuler, 2009, p. 127). Art was not made to produce a feeling it was made simply to tell a story. Artists were usually sanctioned by the church to complete specific works. All artists were male with the exception of some women who did embroideries (Altshuler, 2009, p. 127). Many different types of media was used during this
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
One of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s truly rarest treasures is human unselfish charity. The greatest thing in the world is mutual understanding and the endless feeling of appreciation of having a Home. A place that every one of us has to have: where a happy, loving family could be born, where love, support and acceptance, no matter what, always are, and where kindness, warmness, understanding are sincere and never go away. I think those of us who have homes have to count ourselves exceedingly fortunate, because we are blessed. Home--the roof and the walls--protects us from outside pressure, and gives strength and desire to live, which is the important moral base of a psychologically healthy human being. But what about those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have it? Those who we callÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Through Ã¢â¬Å"Are the Homeless Crazy?Ã¢â¬ we feel and hear the cynic and sarcastic argumentative tone, which I think, is the most approvable at this case. The article makes us, people, supposed human b eings, to follow the question: What are the moral and social qualities we must to develop in ourselves to understand and solve the issue? How much evidence do we need more to do that, when it is already access to it? The writer addresses his analysis of homelessness to everyone of us by using through his narration the third-person point of view-style, what basically helps to illustrate and characterize the whole generation--intended audience--us: Ã¢â¬Å"Many journalists and politicians...Ã¢â¬ -- societyÃ¢â¬â¢s face, the media institute who expresses our interests and views, the main reflective and Ã¢â¬Å"truthfulÃ¢â¬â¢ source of all events in Global arena; Ã¢â¬Å"a frequently cited set of figures... they note... Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"they point... Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"in our rush...Ã¢â¬ In fact, he argues over the idea that medical institutions deliberately deceive by deflecting diagnosis and stigmatizing healthy people Ã¢â¬Å"Immobilized by painÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"traumatized by fear, Ã¢â¬ as paranoids, and mentally ill with Ã¢â¬Å"apparent presence of hallucinations.Ã¢â¬ It raises a huge national uncertainty of how easy we can become homeless ourselves, just because our medical institutions have only Ã¢â¬Å"competentÃ¢â¬ people to make diagnoses for us, basing on our life conditions of course. Plus, IShow MoreRelatedThe Prevalence Of Mental Health976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe physical and mental health of homeless individuals is considerably worse than that of the general population. The prevalence of mental health disorder is astronomically higher among the homeless population. The use of alcohol abuse is usually associated with one or two other psychological disorders. There are many people who have outside issues as well such as physical abuse, antisocial, and sexual abuse. Their motivation to get out of being homeless is usually poor because of poor motivationRead MoreAnalysis Of Crazy Corporation841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe first website I choose is called Crazy Corporation located in Japan; it is a wedding specialty business. The site is styled in a parallax design, with a hamburger menu. The Welcome or Home page invites visitors to explore the site, by clicking on the nav-bar in the right corner, which opens to a page where you can choose where you want to go. This style establishes what content is available for you to visit, from the about us page, to the contact page, the site easily directs you from this oneRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Panhandler Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe increase of homeless people in the streets of New York City, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s also the increase of panhandler especially in Downtown Flushing of Queens. There are a total five panhandlers who sit near the Main St. 7 Train entrance stations. A few of them are sitting on the sidewalk while wielding a cardboard sign and a few standing holding a plastic cup for train commuters so they can donate for the purpose of mitigating their individual circumstances. Not all who panhandle are homeless. Besides beingRead MoreHomeless Of New York City And Socio Economic Impact1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPerla Arrendell Critical Thinking 1198 16 December 2016 Homeless of New York City and the Socio-Economic Impact New York cityÃ¢â¬â¢s population is 8.5 million, one in one hundred and forty-seven New Yorkers are currently homeless. it is estimated that 58,000 homeless men, women and children sleep in homeless shelters and at least 3,100 sleep in the streets during winter. (Bowery). By looking at the sociological impact of homelessness, I will argue that New York cityÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest problem is homelessnessRead MoreHomeless Is Taking Over Hawaii943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHomeless is Taking Over Hawaii While walking down Ala Moana Park, I see many homeless laying around. Feeling a little unsafe because I do not know if they will come up and do something. As time flies by, they should not be living on the street. It is not pleasant seeing them where ever you go. They are eve-rywhere and, Ã¢â¬Å"at least 6,300 are homeless at given dayÃ¢â¬ (Hope para 1). As the facts says in Hope, Ã¢â¬Å"Statewide, 12-15,000 people are homeless at some point of the yearÃ¢â¬ (para 1). Each day, the numbersRead MoreHomelessness : Extreme Poverty And The Urban Housing Crisis913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2014 the National Alliance to End Homelessness collected that Ã¢â¬Å"578,424 people experiencing homelessness on any given night in the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"Snapshot of Homelessness). Most individuals believe that more individuals are single, but Ã¢â¬Å"216,197 are people in families,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"362,163 are individuals,Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Snapshot of Homelessness). Homelessness affects everyone, f rom families to individuals and veterans. In the veterans homeless population there is Ã¢â¬Å"currently over 2.2 million women Veterans in the UnitedRead MorePersuasive Essay About Homelessness1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdeciding which public place youÃ¢â¬â¢ll go in to clean up. When you get hungry, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to beg people for cash. For the rest of the day, you sit in the city hoping people will notice you and help out. Knowing that you are not judged by who you are but what you are, you realize that most people in society don t understand homelessness, and wonder if the circumstances in homelessness will ever change. Being homeless is a shock to many. It depicts someone just like us that lack the minimum necessities thatRead MoreA Study Of Mental Disorders Among The Homeless996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesamong the Homeless, there are around 740,000 individualÃ¢â¬â¢s homeless in the United States alone at any given night. Homelessness is everywhere, yet it is unseen. And yet at the same time AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere often take what they have for granted, especially the roof over their heads. Anna Quindlen discusses these issues in her article Ã¢â¬Å"HomelessÃ¢â¬ . She writes about a woman she met at a bus terminal one day. The womanÃ¢â¬Ës bag and raincoat were covered in grime, her name was Ann, and she was homeless. SuddenlyRead MoreSkid Row802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof angels, is known worldwide for its glamour and riches. With its gleaming skyscrapers and palm-tree lined streets, people flock to this famous city in search of wealth and fame. What most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, however, is that less than two blocks away from one of the richest areas in the world lies the homeless capitol of the United States, Skid Row. Over 254,000 homeless people are estimated to be living in Los Angeles each year. Included in this outstanding number are men, women, and childrenRead MoreThe Problem Of Being Homeless1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere is not one person who is exactly alike. As people grow up and start to learn who they are they start to make their own choices. Sometimes people choose to be homeless, and sometimes they canÃ¢â¬â¢t make ends meet to feed their family so they are forced to live on the streets. Not every homeless you meet wants to be there but sometimes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only choice they have left. Trying to find work is not always the possible. Sometimes people have the knowledge to go to school but they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to
string(164) " claims that raising the federal minimum wage would actually have unintended consequences, in the sense of reducing hiring and potentially increasing unemployment\." The federal minimum wage is a hotly debated topic and a main point that invariably separates the beliefs of the Democratic Party platform from the Republican Party platform. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s federal minimum wage is $7.25 (Jamieson, 2018). We will write a custom essay sample on The Federal Minimum Wage or any similar topic only for you Order Now The federal minimum wage is determined by the FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act), and has not been adjusted from a $7.25 hourly wage since July of 2009. Because of the lack of advancement, many states have developed their own methods for determining minimum wage, but federally, any addition or subtraction must first pass directly through the FLSA (United States Department of Labor, 2018). States determine their minimum wage by analyzing their costs of living which differs depending on location, and analyzing their GDP (gross domestic product) per capita (Stoll, 2014). For example, the minimum wage in Montana as of January 1, 2018 is $8.30 per hour whereas in Massachusetts, where the cost of living is greatly increased, the hourly minimum wage is $11.00. There are 29 states that have an increased minimum wage adjusted specifically to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s cost of living. The wages in these states range from $7.50 to $12.50 per hour (United States Department of Labor, 2018). Even though many states already increase their minimum wage many people living in the United States claim that the federal minimum wage is entirely too low. The preponderance of evidence suggests that increasing the federal minimum wage would have little effect on poverty and would in time reduce job security and increase unemployment. Other factors that could potentially be affected by an increase in the federal minimum wage include consumer prices, suppressed wages for higher skilled workers, and an increase in outsourcing. Prior to the 2016 election the Democratic Party platform was updated and members decided to adopt a $15 per hour minimum wage. They claim that $15 an hour is the only way that American workers can survive and support their families. The push towards an increase in federal minimum wage began in New York City four years ago when a group of fast-food workers went on strike. The movement caught the attention of many popular political figures and eventually the members grouped together to form the #fightfor15 movement (Seitz-Wald, 2016). Experts that claim the federal minimum wage is not sufficient to support a family and live comfortably argue that an increase to the federal minimum wage would provide an Ã¢â¬Å"important liftÃ¢â¬ to over 2.2 million people in the United States (Lu, 2017). Usually these experts begin their arguments stating that the federal minimum wage real amounts have eroded nearly 25% since 1968 (Scott Perez, 2017). The federal minimum wage amounts to only $15,080 annually for full time employment. $15,080 is such a low annual income, experts predict that it is one of the main reasons why living standards have declined nationwide. This number may also contribute to the decline in economic stability, and the shrinking middle class (Lu, 2017). On a national level, supporters of the minimum wage increase provide data that proves the federal minimum wage should be at least $12.00 per hour based on the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ GDP. A poll taken by The Economist reports that over 1.3 million people work at minimum wage, and nearly 1.7 million work below it, thus meaning these employees are not paid hourly rather are tipped employees (Komlos, 2015). Many people would associate a push for minimum wage strictly with larger cities and areas where the cost of living is significantly above average, however even in Montana, a republican dominated state, many citizens still are pushing for a higher minimum wage. Swartz, a home care worker residing in Great Falls, Montana claims that the amount she makes working for three caregiving agencies is simply not enough to support herself comfortably. The three agencies all pay over both the federal minimum wage and MontanaÃ¢â¬â¢s state minimum wage but due to the inconsistency of job hours she claims that making ends meet every month can be a difficult task. Swartz claims that typically some parts of low-wage workers are Ã¢â¬Å"overlookedÃ¢â¬ . People who do not make low wages and are not forced to work 70+ hour work weeks do not understand the struggle. Swartz also states that Ã¢â¬Å"Home-care workers, who help people stay in their homes and live with dignity, deserve a $15-an-hour minimum wage.Ã¢â¬ Attached to SwartzÃ¢â¬â¢s article is a report published by The Alliance for a Just Society, which claims that the living wage in Montana is $14.36 an hour for a single person with no dependents. Montana determines their state minimum wage using the Consumer Price Index, and updates it annually according to the index. Still however, 3,329 Montana employees earn minimum wage which makes up about 1.2% of the entire workforce. Over half of MontanaÃ¢â¬â¢s minimum wage workers are older than 25 and over 60% are women (Jay, 2016). Beginning January 1, 2018 Montana again raised its minimum wage standard to $8.30 per hour. Governor Steve Bullock addressed the issue in an email that read Ã¢â¬Å"People who work full time for a living shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be living in poverty. This modest increase in minimum wage means more Montana workers will have a little extra money in their pockets,Ã¢â¬ The workers who Bullock may have been addressing include workers in the accommodations and food industry and also the retail trade industry who are recurrently the largest number of workers that receive minimum wage (Tribune Capital Bureau, 2017). On the contrary, many experts counterclaim that an increase in minimum wage is not the extreme Ã¢â¬Å"poverty toolÃ¢â¬ that the Democratic Party is hoping for. In fact, one of the biggest arguments against raising minimum wage is the idea of individual states already taking care of the low wage issue. As stated previously Montana, is one of 29 states that already adopted a minimum wage that is higher than the federal minimum wage, and many experts believe that if states were to adjust their incomes according to their cost of living, etc. that would be better fitting rather than adjusting the entire nationÃ¢â¬â¢s minimum wage. Dr. Simon Johnson, MIT Sloan expert, claims that raising the federal minimum wage would actually have unintended consequences, in the sense of reducing hiring and potentially increasing unemployment. You read "The Federal Minimum Wage" in category "Papers" He states Ã¢â¬Å"It is unlikely that states with lower living costs would be able to support a $15 per hour minimum wage increase, while keeping hiring processes and current employment rates the same.Ã¢â¬ He proposes a gradual, stepwise increase to the minimum wage that would occur over time. A drastic increase to $15 per hour would be too abrupt and would have career-changing consequences. A study completed by HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Department points out that most minimum wage earners are second or third job holders in households with other income sources. This could include teenagers, summer employees, etc. Another group that comes to mind when thinking about minimum wage workers is retirees who already receive financial benefits from savings and social security. It is unlikely that an increase in minimum wage would truly benefit the nation, simply because some people working for minimum wage are not attempting to support dependents or themselves entirely. Usually, they are people who are looking for a little extra money rather than needing money to pay for utilities, a house, a car, etc. An even more concerning drawback of raising minimum wage is the elimination of jobs. If the United States government were to demand businesses to pay entry-level workers $15 an hour there would be a huge decrease in job security and job availability. Because, most businesses do not pay entry-level workers at this wage, if they were required to do so, they may attempt to find other means of labor including robots, computers, or other advanced technology. In fact, the Nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office estimated that former President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s proposed $10.10 minimum wage, once fully implemented and in use, Ã¢â¬Å"would reduce total employment by about 500,000 workers.Ã¢â¬ Below is a political cartoon that shows the adverse effects of raising the current minimum wage. Although, many low-wage workers support and advocate for the idea of earning a $15 per hour wage, its effects could actually be deteriorating. Statistics show that raising the federal minimum wage to $15.00 per hour the United States risks eliminating roughly 550,000 part-time jobs and even if the minimum wage was raised to only $9.50 per hour nearly 1.3 million jobs could be lost. Previously, the United States has raised the minimum wage from $5.15 to $7.25, and adversely only 15 percent of the workers who were expected to gain from it lived in poor households. If the minimum wage today were to be raised to $9.50 per hour, only 11 percent of current minimum wage workers living in poverty would gain from this increase. In 2012, a study completed by the Wilson Review claims that both state and federal minimum wage increases between 2003 and 2007 had no effect on state poverty rates. Thus, proving the idea that increasing minimum wage does not provide a tool for lowering poverty levels. David Neumark and William Wascher performed over 100 minimum wage studies and found that about two-thirds of the studies had negative effects on unemployment. Thus, meaning that with an increase in minimum wage business owners and corporations would be forced to decrease their labor force and potentially cut long-time in employees in order to compensate for the wage increase. Half of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce is employed by small businesses. Raising the federal minimum wage is often cast largely as a necessity to ensure that many workers are able to earn a decent living, but in reality itÃ¢â¬â¢s a complex issue. An example of this complexity has occurred in Oakland California in March of 2015 after they increased their statewide minimum wage by 36%, from $9.00 to $12.25 per hour. The effects are varying but some restaurants have raised their food pricing by nearly 20%, or adding a mandatory service charge and doing away with voluntary tips. The issue, business owners recognize and are working hard to resolve is finding the balance between paying a decent wage and keeping customers rather than driving them away. Some people claim that aside from the direct cost of doing business from salaries, they are also paying more for goods and services in their own communities. They question whether or not a higher wage will raise the cost of living for all employees, including those who currently earn a high-wage. Critics who are against raising the minimum wage also claim that if every entry-level worker was paid $15 an hour to begin with, many would lose incentive to get an education and move up to a higher-paying jobs. Ira Stoll, a minimum wage evaluator, states that Ã¢â¬ The lower the minimum wage, the more eager a minimum wage worker would be to enroll in a community college course at night, improve his/her skills, and apply for a higher-paying job.Ã¢â¬ Stoll also states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Making the entry-level jobs higher paying increases the risk that workers will get stuck in them for longer instead of moving on to something more rewarding. Ã¢â¬Å"Another point that many supporters fail to bring about is the idea of freedom of contract. This freedom is not directly protected by the constitution, but it as seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"natural rightÃ¢â¬ and should be exercised. President Kennedy once said Ã¢â¬Å"The rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God. Ã¢â¬ Thus, meaning that if two free people want to enter into a voluntary contract or agreement that does not infringe on anyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s rights or wellbeing the government has no right to step in and stop the deal that is being made. Experts use the idea of freedom of contract to prove that the government should not be involved in every contract made between two people. If a man wants to work for another for $5 an hour, and the other man wants to hire him and pay him $5 an hour than the government should have no authority to infringe on this deal. Raising the federal minimum wage would also affect welfare spending and could potentially increase taxes. Raising the federal minimum wage puts money into the pockets of the working poor people, but this occurs at the expense of business owners. By raising the minimum wage, politicians are taking the roundabout approach of minimum wage increase, rather than building actual political support for these policies. A report published by the Cato Institute claims that evidence shows minimum wage increase Ã¢â¬Å"disproportionately hurt the people theyÃ¢â¬â¢re supposed to help.Ã¢â¬ In this article the Institute cites a 2012 analysis of the New York State minimum wage increase from $5.15 to $6.75 per hour that found a Ã¢â¬Å"20.2 to 21.8 percent reduction in the employment of younger, less-educated individuals. Ã¢â¬ They also note that since 1995, eight studies have examined the income and poverty effects of minimum wage increases, and all but one of those studies have found that past minimum wage hikes had no effect on poverty.One of the largest concerns expertÃ¢â¬â¢s share about a federal minimum wage increase is the impact it would entail on consumer prices. Basically, to raise minimum wage means to pay more people more money which has to be supplied from somewhere. Experts against the increase claim that the extra money will come from increased consumer prices. The 2012 Wilson Review notes: Ã¢â¬Å"A 2004 review of more than 20 minimum wage studies looking at price effects found that a 10 percent increase in the U.S. minimum wage raises food prices by up to 4 percent.Ã¢â¬ To back up this idea a report posted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago states that restaurant prices increase in response to minimum wage increases. The federal minimum wage is at a lower real value than it once was, but in order to change it law makers are going to have to look deeper into the problem rather than attempting to change the outcome quickly by increasing the minimum wage in all states to $15.00 hourly. Our country is unique in the nature that each state is able to make and regulate their own minimum wage and this matter is better dealt with inside certain states than from the federal government as a whole. There is most definitely a need in the United States to implement a method to decrease the rising poverty level, but this method should not be an increase in federal minimum wage because this method is directly related to rising prices, higher unemployment, job loss, and lack of job security. Small businesses, as stated previously, make up approximately 50% of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce and if the government were to demand these businesses to pay their starting employees $12 or more, the businesses would be forced to either higher less people, lay off long term workers, or even more devastating, shutdown. This method proves ineffective in decreasing the families living underneath the poverty line and instead harms those workers who are higher-skilled and higher-paid. How to cite The Federal Minimum Wage, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Virtual Marketing, Its Sources of Technology, Science Behind It and Stage of Adoption Essay Virtual Marketing, its sources of technology, science behind it and stage of adoption. Introduction Technology is the creation utilization and knowledge of tools, equipment, machines, systems or methods used to solve a problem or perform a particular task (Merriam-Webster, 2012). Virtual Marketing is a product of several technologies, combined to create a synergistic effect for the companies. Search engine optimization, ranking, website indexation, online advertising, and many other virtual sources of marketing come under the umbrella of virtual marketing (www. internet-communication-services. com, 2012). This essay introduces the concept of Virtual Marketing with a brief background and its sources from which it originates. Discussion Virtual marketing stands on the shoulder of the internet and computer. Since the invention of internet in 1973, it has brought myriad breakthrough in many fields including science, education, health care and businesses. Internet, as today, is a result of successive evolution. Initially neither the internet nor computers were affordable for individuals. Only companies with vast databases could afford it. Also, government used it for their purposes. In fact, US military is one of the first users of internet. Later the computer became smaller, and the internet became faster and affordable. Virtual Marketing, started with simple online brochures or simple web pages highlighting the features of product around 1990. A web page that serves as a brochure, capable of updating the features very quickly. We will write a custom essay sample on Virtual Marketing, Its Sources of Technology, Science Behind It and Stage of Adoption specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Virtual Marketing, Its Sources of Technology, Science Behind It and Stage of Adoption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Virtual Marketing, Its Sources of Technology, Science Behind It and Stage of Adoption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Later it evolved further, links to purchase were added, and brochures then began to customize according to the history of each user with that web page. This initiated the concept of mass customization, which subsequently applied to production of goods as well. Then came a flood of these online brochures, it became almost impossible to get to the page you want if you do not know the exact address. This brought a need for a search engine. Which automatically searched the topic, we wanted. Search engines use to hold a large collection of websites addresses and the subjects of them. But websites became dynamic; there data get updated more frequently. Then came the modern idea of Ã¢â¬Å"key word(s), (marketing. com, 2010). Initially the key word search was random, meaning as soon as user typed the word, search engine use to present a list of all the websites that had those words. Later came the idea of search engine optimization. Every website wanted its name to appear on top of search results. One method was to pay the search engine, and the other was to use the search engine optimization techniques. Virtual advertising is interactive. It customizes the message itself as per the user interest. Logs are maintained for each user, often in his/her own computer, known as Ã¢â¬Å"cookiesÃ¢â¬ . These cookies keep the session details saved in the hard disk. Next time the user login, it automatically recognizes that user and shows the relevant material. One example is of eBay. When a customer shops on a website, data is continually processed and saved, and when the next time the consumer comes, suggestions of related item are displayed, increasing the chance of purchase. Electronic markets are also considered a part of virtual marketing. Electronic mall is term used for a site which provides access to electronic markets related to different categories. Electronic markets are accessible 24/7. Pure virtual organizations have no tangible existence, like eBay, Amazon etc. while most common of these is click and mortar. Where a company maintains its status of being physical while obtaining the advantages of operating online as well. This all would have been a dream without the advancement and discoveries of science that made it possible. Old computers were of the size of a room. In order to operate those mammoth systems, required an input of immense energy. It had to be shut down after a while to cool it down. The capacity of storage was mediocre as compared to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s PCs. Initially Vacuum tubes were used in those computer systems. Later integrated circuits were introduced, which not only reduced the size of those machines but also reduced the power input. Then computers were much smaller, but still it was so costly that only business could afford. The first computer was named Ã¢â¬Å"Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), developed in 1946 by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. After ENIAC came the UNIVAC 1. UNIVAC 1 was the first universal automatic computer, that was widely marketed. UNIVAC 1 received acceptance quickly, as it was installed in a government organization, the US Census Beauru, 1951. These mainframe computers were not fitted for use in homes. After this computer came the mini computers. Minicomputer is term used for successors of mainframe, which were smaller in size. Minicomputers evolved around 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. These computers were cheaper than mainframes and mid-size computers of IBM. Inspired by the infrastructure and software technology of minicomputers, microcomputers were introduced in the market. The first marketed computer designed with a Microprocessor was Ã¢â¬Å"Micra-NÃ¢â¬ . Apple pioneered the microcomputers and IBM introduced Personal Computer (PC), now used generally (McLeod George, 2010). However, virtual marketing was not possible without the internet. Internet, short form of internetworking roots back to 1950s. The network became establishing as soon as the early computers were invented. These networks were used to connect mainframes with terminals. Later in 1970s, APRANET formed a network of networks, connecting many networks to form a complex structure of networks, which led to the development of internetworking protocols. In 1982, the internet as we know today, came into being. But it was not open for commercial use at that time. Connections were given to educational and research institutes. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) began appearing in the late 1980s. Finally, APRANET was decommissioned in 1990s and internet became available for public use in 1995. The commercialization of internet technology and smaller and faster computers running brought revolution and gave birth to the virtual world. Virtual marketing is one application of these synergistic systems. Online markets, interactive marketing and dynamic web content enabled promotional material gained acceptance very soon. However, initially between, 1984-1988, there was resistance in Europe for widespread use of the internet, and the only networks (intranet) of CERN remained cut off from the big stream of internet. Later around early 1990s its access on widespread became possible in Europe. Segal, 1995) The internet technology started from North America and spread globally. Internet began to spread in around the globe; however, their connectivity with each other was too expensive to form. Push strategy was used for the use IP protocols and unified systems for the connectivity among different networks. (Internet History in Asia, 2005). The form of Virtual marketing includes, Disp lay Advertising, Search Engine marketing (SEM), Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Social Media Marketing, Email Marketing, Referral Marketing, Affiliate Marketing and Content Marketing. Companies use Display Advertising, which is placing ads or Banner (in digital form) on a third party website for promotional reasons. It is one of the reasons Google survived in early days. Google wanted revenue, and the idea of placing ads came just at the right time. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is used to improve the visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs). There are many ways to do that, one is paid placement, another is contextual marketing. One free technique of doing it is search engine optimization techniques. Search Engine Optimization (SEO), is the process of increasing the visibility of a website through non-paid methods, where non-paid means it involves no payment to search engine. Social Media Marketing is also a very common process of attracting traffic to the website. It accomplishes that with the help of social media website like, Facebook, Twitter, and Linked in. Email Marketing, involves sending electronic messages. However, it is debatable that whether this form of unsolicited sending of emails is ethical. Referral Marketing, involves placing the ad of one website on other websites. Affiliate Marketing, is a method in which the affiliates bring customer with their own marketing efforts. Many revenue models exist for this kind of activities, like, commission, fixed, etc. Virtual Marketing is called virtual since it has no existence in the physical world but it has a huge effect on the physical world for sure. Virtual marketing allows advertisers and marketers tremendous freedom of showing creativity at very reasonable costs. However, it is increasingly getting difficult for companies to differentiate themselves from competitors on the internet. It will not be wrong, if we say this is the age of information. The combination of computer and the internet has brought a revolution in the field of science, education, health and all other domains of knowledge. However, obvious reason also inhibits its use in the particular situation. One such reason is security. Increasing threat of viruses is a threat to businesses, consumers and governments. The war between virus developer and anti-virus developers seems to be unstoppable. Cybercrime is still not recognized in many countries, which creates doubt regarding who to trust online and whom to trust not. Many fraud cases are caught every now and then but many still remain unsolved. Another issue is of the privacy, spying activity is increasing day by day. Defense systems are always there, but nothing seems to be invincible. Conclusion Despite all these threats to security and privacy, the idea of virtual marketing has proliferated like nothing else. The key to successful marketing is identifying the needs of customers. Identifying the needs involves understanding the behaviour of individuals and in groups. It involves the application of scientific research methods to understand the behaviour and attitudes. Internet combined with computer technology has made it easier to do that on this large scale. Virtual Marketing and Virtual companies give flexibility of low cost and 24 hours availability, but it also increases chances of fraud and scam. Regulatory authorities also issue licenses to these websites to carry on their activities. The technology is changing very rapidly, reducing the cost of it, and expanding the limits. The usage of internet and computer, particularly virtual advertising which was not very suitable for some businesses earlier, is now enjoying the freedom of universal suitability. The only thing that virtual marketing cannot achieve is what we have not thought of.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Increase Motivation for Reading through Choice When the headlines reportÃ thatÃ the overall average reading score of 8th students in 2015 declined in comparison to the previous assessment in 2013, there was a chorus of educators whoÃ most likely responded: But...they just dont want to read! The report released by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is considered a benchmark on the academic progress of an estimatedÃ 60 million secondary studentsÃ attending private and public middle and high schools in the United States. The most recent statistics on these students indicate that there is a significant drop in reading proficiency levels in grades 7-12. For example, only 34 percent of 8th graders (2015) scored at or above proficient levels on the, the largest nationally representative and continuing assessment. This NAEP data also shows a disturbing trend, with reading scores of eighth graders across demographic groups declining from 2013 to 2015. The report confirms what secondary teachers have been saying anecdotally, thatÃ both high and low achieving students are often unmotivated to read. This lack of motivation has been also explored as a cultural problem in David Denbys New Yorker article, Do Teens Read Seriously Anymore?Ã and illustrated in anÃ infographic created by Common Sense MediaÃ (2014) titledÃ Children, Teens and Reading. Perhaps it is no surprise to researchers that the decline in reading proficiency coincides with a decline with student autonomy or choice in reading materials. That decline in choice is created by an increase in teacher control of reading materials at the higher grade levels.Ã TheyWere Once Readers In the elementary grades, students are given the opportunity to develop a sense of autonomy in reading choice; they are allowed and encouraged to independently select books to read. There is explicit instruction in making good choices in lessons that explain how to judge a Ã just right book using questions such as: Are there more than five words on a page you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know?Are you confused about what is happening in most of this book? This autonomy contributes to the growth of a reader. According to J.T.Ã Guthrie, et al, in the research brief Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension Growth in the Later Elementary Years, (2007)Ã published inÃ Contemporary Educational Psychology: Children who valued choosing their own books subsequently developed elaborate strategies for selecting books and reported being more intrinsically motivated readers. By giving their students a choice of reading materials in the early grades, elementary teachers increase academic independence and motivation. Ã However, in most school systems, a students choice of reading material lessens as he or she moves up to the middle and high school grades. Assessment and Standards are Factors By the time a student moves into the middle grades, theÃ emphasis is on on discipline specific reading materials, as seen in the recommendation by the English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards inÃ LiteracyÃ (Key Design Considerations) . This recommendation has resulted in an increase in the reading percentage of nonfiction or informational texts in all disciplines, not just ELA: By grade 8, reading materials should be 45% literary fiction and 55% informational texts;By the time students graduate, reading materials should be 30% literary fiction and 70% informational texts.Ã These same education researchers,Ã Guthrie et al, have also published an e-book (2012)Ã Motivation, achievement, and Classroom Contexts for Information Book Reading, toÃ document their pursuit of what motivates students to read and what classroom contexts best promote motivation. They note in their e-book that because schools are seeing an increase in educational accountability at different levels and there are a variety ofÃ reading materials are assigned in all subject areas so that teachers can take formal and frequent evaluations of their students. Much of this reading material used for accountability, however, is dull: Middle school students overwhelmingly describe the information texts they read in science classes as boring, irrelevant, and difficult to understand- hardly a recipe for positive motivation to read this material. The researchers who argue for student autonomy agree thatÃ student interest in reading independently (for fun) diminishesÃ when teachers overly control reading topics or materials. This is especially true for low achieving students. ResearcherÃ Carol Gordon notedÃ that for this population of adolescents, student attitude is another factor. She explains: Since low-achievers typically do not read voluntarily outside of school, most of their reading is mandated. These students express anger and defiance, as indicated by survey data. In many cases, low achievers donÃ¢â¬â¢t really hate to read- they hate to be told what to read. Paradoxically, low-achieving students are the population that would benefit the most from an increase in voluntary reading. To counter the recent drops in reading proficiency, educators need to stop telling students, high and low-achieving, what to read so that students can develop develop ownership over their reading choices. Choice Motivates Students to Read One of the best ways to move beyond assigning all reading is for teachers to provide time in the academic day for voluntary reading of texts for extended periods of time. There may be objections to the use of already dedicated academic time, but the research indicates that time spent reading in school improves academic performance. This is true even for the light or fun reading of young adult literature.Ã Gordon explains that theÃ practice of free voluntary reading is not only conducive to reading motivation, [but] it actually works better than direct instruction. She cites Stephen Krashens work (2004) with 54 students, with 51 of those students who scored higher on reading tests than similar students given traditional skill-based reading instruction. Another compellingÃ argument for providing time in the school day to reading practice is the comparisonÃ to the practice necessary one needs to do in order to become proficient at a sport; the increased number of practice hours increases performance. Even 10 minutes a day of reading can have dramatic effects by simply exposing students to multiple texts text. ResearcherÃ M.J. Adams (2006) developed a data breakdown that illustrates how ten minutes of daily book reading in middle school will increase a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to print by about 700,000 words each year. This exposure surpasses the amount of reading currently done by the same grade level students who are performing at the 70th percentile.Ã To facilitate student voluntary reading, students need access to reading materials that allow for their choice of reading materials. Independent reading libraries in classrooms can help students generate a sense of agency. Students can discover and share authors, explore topics in theÃ genres that appeal to them, and improve their reading habits. Create Independent Classroom Libraries The publisher Scholastic produced a report, Kids Family Reading Report (5th edition, 2014) As a publisher of children and young adult literature, Scholastic has a vested interest in increasing the number of readers across the country. In their research based on student polling, they found that in populations aged 12-17,Ã 78% of frequent readers who read books for fun 5-7 times per week are provided time and choice in contrast to the 24% of the infrequent readers who are not provided time or choice. Scholastic also noted that choice for adolescents requires easy access to a wide range of interesting texts. One of their recommendations was that school districts must begin to put money into texts and Ã allocate funds for high-interest books. They recommend that independent reading libraries should be developed with student input as the critical resource for increasing reading proficiency. Another proponent for independent reading is Ã Penny Kittle,Ã anÃ English teacher and literacy coach at Kennett High School in North Conway, New Hampshire. She has writtenÃ Book Love.Ã a popular guide to helping secondary students read independently. In this guide,Ã Kittle offers strategies to help teachers, particularly English Language Arts teachers, to increase the volume of what students read and to deepen student thinking about what they read. She offers advice on how to build up those classroom libraries includingÃ grant writing Ã or applications toÃ DonorÃ¢â¬â¢s ChooseÃ orÃ The Book Love Foundation. Asking for multiple copies of texts from book clubs and going to warehouse, garage, and library sales are also great ways to grow the classroom libraries. Developing a good relationship with the school library is also important, and students should be encourages to recommend texts for purchase. Finally, teachers can look for the numerous options available wi th e-texts. Choice: ADesired Option The research concludes that there are millions of students who do not have the rudimentary reading skills that are needed to locate relevant information or make simple inferences. Without the necessary literacy skills for college or career, students may be retained in school or drop out of high school. Ã The consequences for underdeveloped literacy to the student and to the economic welfare of the country can mean the collective loss of billions of dollars in wages and earnings over a lifetime. Secondary educators need to guide students to associate reading with enjoyment and a worthwhile activity by offering choice. This association can result in making reading a desired option; to make students want to read. The benefits of allowing and encouraging students to make choices about reading will last beyond Ã school careers and throughout their lives.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Definition and Examples of Text Messaging Texting is the process of sending and receiving brief written messages using a cellular (mobile) phone. Also called text messaging, mobile messaging, short mail, point-to-point short-message service, and Short Message Service (SMS). Ã¢â¬Å"Texting isnÃ¢â¬â¢t written language,Ã¢â¬ says linguist John McWhorter. It much more closely resembles the kind of language weÃ¢â¬â¢ve had for so many more years: spoken language (quoted by Michael C. Copeland in Wired, March 1, 2013).According to Heather Kelly of CNN, Six billion text messages are sent every day in the United States, ... and over 2.2 trillion are sent a year. Globally, 8.6 trillion text messages are sent each year, according to Portio Research. Example: When Birdy texted again, I was only a mile from Glades City, and the junkyard owned by Harris Spooner, so I was feeling tense and alone on this dark country road, until I read her message:On way home, no luck. Will call when reception better. Sorry!!! Ã¢Ë ºI felt like saying Yippee! a word Ive never used, and my spirits, which had been low, rebounded. ... So I left a message, then replied to her text: Am near Glade City exit, how about glass of wine? Where U? As I hit Send, I noticed car lights behind me and was relieved when I saw that it was an eighteen-wheeler.(Randy Wayne White, Deceived. Penguin, 2013) Myths About Texting All the popular beliefs about texting are wrong, or at least debatable. Its graphic distinctiveness is not a totally new phenomenon. Nor is its use restricted to the young generation. There is increasing evidence that it helps rather than hinders literacy. And only a very tiny part of the language uses its distinctive orthography. Ã (David Crystal, Txtng: the Gr8 Db8. Oxford University Press, 2008) Texting and Instant Messaging [A]bbreviations, acronyms, and emoticons are less prevalent in American college student IM [Instant Messaging] conversations than suggested by the popular press. To move beyond media hyperbole regarding text messaging, we need corpus-based analyses of texting.Judging from our sample, American college-student text messaging and IM differed in several interesting ways. Text messages were consistently longer and contained more sentences, probably resulting from both cost factors and the tendency for IM conversations to be chunked into sequences of short messages. Text messages contained many more abbreviations than IMs, but even the number in texting was small. Ã (Naomi Baron, Always On: Language in an Online and Mobile World. Oxford University Press, 2008) A Good Text A good text, a well-timed text, a text that expresses some bullet of revelation, some reminder of love, some thoughtful association or ball-busting paraphrase of what we agree on reconnects us when that is all we ever wantedconnectionin the midst of the chattering, indifferent cloud of humanity.(Tom Chiarella, Rule No. 991: It Is Entirely Possible to Write a Good Text Message. Esquire, May 2015)Ã Teenagers and Texting In the United States, 75% of teenagers text, sending an average of 60 texts a day. According to Pew Internet research, texting is teens most common form of communication, beating out phone conversations, social networks, and old-fashioned face-to-face conversations. Ã (Heather Kelly, OMG, the Text Message Turns 20. But Has SMS Peaked? CNN, December 3, 2012) For teenagers now, . . . texting has been largely superseded by instant messagingas Stephanie Lipman, a 17-year-old Londoner, explains. I did text for a while, but instant messaging is so much better like a constant stream-of-consciousness. You dont have to bother with Hello. How are you? or any of that. You just have this series of conversations with your friends which you can add on to when youre in the mood. Ã (James Delingpole, Texting Is So Last Year. Daily Telegraph, Jan. 17, 2010) [F]or young people, blogs are work, not play. A 2008 Pew research project found that while 85% of 12 to 17-year-olds engaged in electronic personal communication (including texting, email, instant messaging and commenting on social media), 60% didnÃ¢â¬â¢t consider these texts to be writing. Another study in 2013 revealed that teenagers still distinguish between the proper writing they do for school (which may be on blogs) and their informal, social communication.(Mel Campbell, Should We Mourn the End of Blogs? The Guardian, July 17, 2014) Textspeak in the 19th Century This S A, until U I CI pray U 2 X QsAnd do not burn in F E GMy young and wayward muse.Now fare U well, dear K T J,I trust that U R trueWhen this U C, then you can say,A S A I O U.(Final verses of Essay to Miss Catharine Jay in Gleanings From the Harvest-Fields of Literature, Science and Art: A Melange of Excerpta, Curious, Humorous, and Instructive, 2nd ed., collated by Charles Carroll Bombaugh. Baltimore: T. Newton Kurtz, 1860) Predictive Texting Predictive texting is aÃ program in many cellular (mobile) phones that predicts a completeÃ wordÃ after a user has typed in just one or twoÃ letters. [Predictive texting] significantly reduces the number of key-presses, but there are costs alongside benefits. An early study (2002) reported that only just over half the participants who hadÃ predictive messagingÃ actually used it. The others did not use it for a variety of reasons. Some said it slowed them down. Some missed the option to useÃ abbreviationsÃ (though one can code them in). Some said their system did not offer the right words and found the task of adding new words slow and annoying. (David Crystal,Ã Txtng: the Gr8 Db8. Oxford University Press, 2008)[W]hile Predictive textingÃ might be good for the nationsÃ spelling, it is not always easily understood. Try typing he if is cycle, hell in to get his awake and come go to red of and see what happens when the right combination of buttons throws up the wrong words. . . . Researchers might find an intriguing answer for why a kiss often turns out to be on the lips. Are chefs aged? Is it boring to be coping? Is art apt? Is it always good to be home in the hood? Or has everyone gone? And if you try and do something asap why does it often turn out crap?Ã (I. Hollinghead, Whatever Happened to txt lngwj:)?Ã The Guardian, Jan. 7, 2006) -Ã Concern about the widespread infiltration of text messaging conventions intoÃ written EnglishÃ may ... be misplaced, as predictive texting becomes more common and sophisticated. ... While it seems certain that our accepted notions of standards inÃ languageÃ will be influenced by electronic forms ofÃ communication, it is very hard to predict in any detail and with any certainty what this impact might be. (A. Hewings and M. Hewings,Ã Grammar and Context. Routledge, 2005) Alternate Spellings: txting